Androsova Olga Evgenyevna, Candidate of psychological sciences, associate professor, sub-department of interpretation and translation science, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), email@example.com
Ozhegova Ekaterina Yuryevna, Candidate of pedagogical sciences, associate professor, sub-department of interpretation and translation science, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), firstname.lastname@example.org
Background. In the study of cultural components of a language, an emphasis is put on ethnic words – objects, phenomena and concepts specific to a particular linguo-cultural community. These linguistic units are of interest to researchers of a particular language, as well as to scientists involved in comparing languages. The study is important due to the fact that the problem of translating ethnic words has not been solved yet and always presents a challenge to translators. The aim of the research is to study the specific features of Russian ethnic words in the stories written by I. S. Turgenev and the ways of their translation into English.
Materials and methods. The study was conducted on the material of a collection of short stories by I. S. Turgenev “The Hunting Sketches” and its translation into English “A Sportsman’s Sketches” done by C. Garnett. The methodological potential includes: the method of continuous sampling, the analysis of dictionary definitions of Russian ethnic words, the method of contextual analysis, the method of translatological analysis.
Results. Russian ethnic words in the stories written by I. S. Turgenev help the author to create the atmosphere of peasant life of the mid 19th century Russia. The investigated ethnic words belong to the following thematic groups: everyday life (clothing, food, housing, vehicles), social and political life, measures and money, administrative and territorial division, work, culture. The main ways of translating Russian ethnic words into English are: functional analogue, description, generic substitution, transcription, contextual translation.
Conclusions. Ethnic words reflect a social, cultural and historical background of a certain linguo-cultural community. Being formally non-equivalent, ethnic words are still possible to translate. In each case a translator is to choose an adequate way of translation, which will convey a meaning and a regional flavour of an ethnic word.
ethnic word, thematic group, functional analogue, description, generic substitution, transcription, contextual translation
1. Barkhudarov L. S. Yazyk i perevod [Language and translation]. Moscow: Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 1975, 239 p.
2. Vlakhov S., Florin S. Neperevodimoe v perevode [The untranslatable in translations]. Moscow: Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 1980, 343 p.
3. Vinogradov V. S. Vvedenie v perevodovedenie (obshchie i leksicheskie voprosy) [Introduction into translation science (general and lexical issues)]. Moscow: Izd-vo in-ta obshch. sred. obraz. RAO, 2001, 224 p.
4. Vereshchagin E. M., Kostomarov V. G. Yazyk i kul'tura [Laguage and culture]. 3d ed. Moscow: Indrik, 2005, 1038 p.
5. Tomakhin G. D. Inostrannye yazyki v shkole [Foreign languages at school]. 1997, no. 3, pp. 13–18.
6. Komissarov V. N. Obshchaya teoriya perevoda [The general theory of translation]. Moscow: CheRo, 1999, 133 p.
7. Turgenev I. S. Zapiski okhotnika [The Hunting Sketches]. Moscow: Makhaon, 2014, 176 p.
8. Fedosyuk Yu. A. Chto neponyatno u klassikov, ili Entsiklopediya russkogo byta XIX veka [What is difficult to understand in works by classical writers, or an Encyclopedia of Russian everyday life of the XIX century]. Moscow: Flinta: Nauka, 2003, 132 p.
9. Dal' V. Tolkovyy slovar' zhivogo velikorusskogo yazyka: v 4 t. [Explanatory dictionary of the great living Russian language: in 4 volumes]. Moscow: Tsitadel', 1998, 4472 p.
10. Ozhegov S. I., Shvedova N. Yu. Tolkovyy slovar' russkogo yazyka: 80 000 slov i frazeologicheskikh vyrazheniy [Explanatory dictionary of Russian language: 80 000 words and phraseological units]. 4th ed. Moscow: Azbukovnik, 1999, 944 p.
11. Bol'shoy tolkovyy slovar' russkogo yazyka [The great explanatory dictionary of Russian language]. Ed. by S. A. Kuznetsov. Saint-Petersburg: Norint, 2000, 1536 p.
12. Efremova T. F. Bol'shoy sovremennyy tolkovyy slovar' russkogo yazyka: v 3 t. [The great contemproray dictionary of Russian language: in 3 volumes]. Moscow: AST: Astrel': Kharvest, 2006, 1168 p.
13. Sovetskaya istoricheskaya entsiklopediya [Soviet historical encyclopedia]. Ed. by E. M. Zhukova. Moscow: Sovetskaya entsiklopediya, 1973–1982, 1236 p.
14. Turgenev I. S. A Sportsman’s Sketches; translated by Garnett Constance. North Charleston: CreatSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2014, 94 p.
15. Oxford English Dictionary. Ed. by John Simpson, Edmund Weiner. Second edition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989, vol. 20, 21, 728 p